Canada Work Permits
Well over 100,000 temporary work permits are issued every year, and thousands more work in Canada without a work permit. In this page, we will explore who does – and who does not – require a work permit, and the steps to take if a work permit is necessary.
No Work Permit Required
Every year, thousands of foreign nationals work in Canada without a work permit.
This section will discuss when an individual can work in Canada without first obtaining a work permit (subject to any medical or criminal issues, discussed later), depending on his or her activities in Canada.
If a foreign individual in Canada engages in an activity and is not paid wages or commissions, he or she is not considered to be “working” in Canada and no work permit is required.
However, if an unpaid foreign individual engages in activities that are in direct competition with activities of Canadian citizens or permanent residents in the labour market, this is considered to be “work” and a work permit would be required.
For example, if a foreign individual engaged in an activity that would normally be a paid position for a Canadian citizen, then a work permit would be required. A person can’t work as a “volunteer” in a job that is normally a paid job.
The courts have held that visitors who occasionally help out relatives at their place of business over a short period of time are not usually engaging in work, whereas regular attendance at a workplace where individuals are typically paid over a longer period of time can be considered work for which a permit is required.
A range of business visitors are permitted to work in Canada without a work permit, however, every business visitor must receive his or her pay from outside of Canada, and the principal place of business and profits must remain predominantly outside of Canada:
Individuals in Canada for the sole purpose of purchasing Canadian goods or services for a foreign business or government, or receiving training or familiarization in respect of such goods or services do not require a work permit.
Trainees or Trainers
Individuals in Canada who provide familiarization or training services of installation of specialized equipment purchased or leased outside Canada. Also included are intra-company trainers and trainees. Such training does not include “hands-on” training, but only classroom training.
Individuals who sell goods (not services) for a foreign business or government are exempt from obtaining a work permit, only if they do not sell to the general public in Canada. Generally, individuals under this exemption sell to wholesalers, retailers and institutional buyers.
Military personnel of foreign armed forces (along with civilians who are also a part of the armed forces) do not require work permits, so long as they are from a country that is designated under the Visiting Forces Act.
Senior members of foreign governments who work for a federal or provincial agency pursuant to a formal government exchange agreement do not require a work permit.
Full-Time University or College Students
A student studying in Canada at a university or college under a valid study permit can work on the campus where they are studying so long as their study permit remains valid.
Performing artists can perform in Canada without a work permit for a performance other than for film, television or radio. Performers must be part of a foreign production or guests in a Canadian production in a time-limited engagement and not employed by a Canadian contractor. No performance in a bar, restaurant or similar establishment is permitted under this exception to obtaining a work permit.
Athletes and Coaches
Athletes and coaches with foreign teams can compete in Canada without a work permit.
News Reporters and Crews
An employee of a foreign news company who is in Canada for the purpose of reporting on events in Canada does not need a work permit.
Individuals coming to Canada for the purpose of making a speech or delivering a paper at an event or a function which includes colleges, commercial events or seminars lasting no longer than 5 days, do not require a permit.
Convention Organizers and Support Staff
Those individuals organizing for a convention or meeting in Canada do not require a work permit.
People working for a spiritual congregation or chruch and responsible for assisting a congregation in the achievement of its spiritual goals, and whose main duties are to preach, perform functions related to the gathering, or provide spiritual counselling do not require a work permit. Management or finance duties do require a work permit however.
Judges or Referees
Judges and referees do not require a work permit to officiate at events hosted in Canada.
Examiners of research proposals, academic projects, or university theses do not require a work permit.
Individuals in Canada to conduct surveys or analysis or to testify in court (or equivalent hearing) are exempt from having to obtain a work permit. Nonetheless, these individuals must be expert in their field and no Canadian experts would be available to perform the same function.
Medical students can work without a work permit at a medical institution in order to obtain training (if appoved by the appropriate agency).
Civil aviation inspectors and accident investigators are exempt while inspecting a commercial air carrier operating international flights and investigating accidents.
Crew members are exempt from if they are engaged in the international transport of cargo or passengers.
Crew Members of Foreign-Owned Transportation Companies
Crew members of transportation companies are exempt from obtaining a work permit if they are engaged in the international transport of cargo or passengers. Exceptions include earth moving equipment, oil rigs or similar.
Emergency Services Providers
Individuals providing emergency services in response to a disaster are exempt from obtaining a work permit.
NAFTA Business Visitor
The North American Free Trade Agreement allows certain business visitors from the U.S. or Mexico to work in Canada without a work permit. Such business visitors must fall within the definition of Appendix 1603 A.1 of NAFTA and includes activities such as:
- Research and design
- Growth, manufacturing and production
- Purchasing and production management personnel
- After-sales service
- General service
Canada Chile Free Trade Agreement
Canada has a free trade agreement with Chile that parallels the provisions of NAFTA for temporary workers.
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)
Canada is a signatory to GATS which permits individuals of signatory countries to work in Canada with a work permit but without HRSDC confirmation.
Although similar to the NAFTA provisions, GATS has unique requirements for professionals and restrictions on the length of time spent in Canada. Click here for more information on GATS.
Types of Work Permits
If an individual does not fall within any of the exemptions described above, he or she must obtain a work permit before working in Canada.
Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC) Confirmation Letter Work Permit
This is the most common type of work permit.
This work permit is issued only on the basis of an ESDC labour market impact assessment (LMIA) granted to the Canadian employer that confirms there is no Canadian available to do the job.
ESDC will look at the employer’s advertising efforts and the labour market for that job.
As well, ESDC will ensure that the wages and working conditions being offered to a foreign national are equivalent to what a Canadian would be paid for the same work.
In addition, ESDC will consider how the employer will transition to a Canadian workforce. Whether skills and knowledge transfer would result from confirming the foreign worker and whether the work is likely to create other jobs for the benefit of Canadians or permanent residents.
Remember, the employer (not the worker) applies for ESDC confirmation. The employer must advertise the position in the Canada Job Bank and typically in one trade magazine for a certain period of time depending on the job.
A good strategy when applying for an ESDC confirmation is to show that the position was properly advertised (keep evidence of the ad and the time period it was posted), to explain why no Canadians is available for the position, and explain how the skills of the foreign worker will be used to train Canadians or create other jobs through the enhancement of the business in Canada.
Once an employer receives a positive LMIA (confirmation letter) from ESDC, the worker can use this letter to apply for a work permit.
Click here for more information on the ESDC process, including minimum required advertising times for positions.
Open Work Permit
An open work permit allows an individual to work at any employer he or she chooses (although such a permit is often restricted to certain industries). An open work permit does not require an ESDC LMIA (discussed above).
An open work permit may be issued to the spouse or common law partner who accompanies a foreign student or worker to Canada (who are themselves admitted under a study or work permit) for a time period equal to that study or work permit.
As such, spouses or common law partners accompanying a foreign student or worker should apply for an open work permit at the same time the foreign student or worker is applying for a permit, and prior to arrival in Canada.
NAFTA Intra-Company Transferees
The North American Free Trade Agreement allows certain U.S. or Mexico intra-company employees to work in Canada without the requirement for an HRSDC confirmation. There are several requirements for this category of work permit, including:
- the person must have been employed abroad continuously for 1 year prior to the time of application at the managerial level
- the person must be seeking entry into Canada to continue employment with the same employer, subsidiary or parent company at the management level
- “managerial” means that a person must be responsible for directing the organization or a unit of the organization, and must have the power to hire and fire, or at least recommend such actions
The North American Free Trade Agreement allows certain U.S. or Mexico traders to work in Canada without the requirement for an HRSDC confirmation. This category applies to senior managers of U.S. or Mexico companies who intend to carry on substantial trade with Canada.
There are a number of specific requirements, including percent ownership and volume of trade minimums.
The North American Free Trade Agreement allows certain U.S. or Mexico investors to work in Canada without the requirement for an HRSDC confirmation.
This category applies to individuals who are investing in a company in Canada which is a U.S. or Mexican company operating in Canada. There are a number of specific requirements, including percent control and the nature of the investment.
Obtaining a Work Permit Requiring ESDC Confirmation
This section will describe the process of obtaining a work permit that requires ESDC confirmation.
An ESDC confirmation is an opinion from Employment and Social Development Canada that there is no Canadian available to do the job for which a work permit is applied for.
If Canadians are readily available to do the job, ESDC approval will not be given.
ESDC also considers whether there will be skills and knowledge transfer to Canadians, or if the position in Canada will create opportunities for other Canadians.
An employer should absolutely include a plan to transition to Canadian workforce – a skills transfer to Canadians aspect, or an improvement in your business so you’ll be able to hire more Canadians as part of the LMIA application.
Step 1: Employer Must Obtain ESDC Confirmation
The first step in obtaining a work permit is for the Canadian employer to obtain HRSDC confirmation for the particular job that he or she wishes to fill with a foreign national.
Click here for a detailed list of steps in order to obtain an HRSDC confirmation.
Application to ESDC
A Canadian employer must first apply for an ESDC confirmation letter at the local ESDC office responsible for the location where the job will be situated.
It is often possible to discuss the situation and ask for advice from an ESDC officer during the process, which is usually completed very quickly.
Click here for a list of local HRSDC offices.
Typically, an application from the employer requires the following:
- job title
- a description of job responsibilities
- a description of the job requirements including education, experience or other specific skills
- salary, benefits, hours of work, vacation (which must be sufficient to attract local workers and does not undercut the local job market)
- details concerning the employer’s workplace, such as number of employees and number of other foreign workers employed by the employer
- efforts of the employer to locate Canadian citizens or permanent residents who could have filled the position (including evidence of such efforts such as posting in newspapers or electronic job boards)
- efforts by the employer to train Canadian citizens or permanent residents to fill the position (if training can not be accomplished under 6 months or so, then HRSDC will likely give a favourable opinion on this factor)
- Depending on the circumstances, a Canadian employer should also include the following information:
- how a foreign worker will transfer skills and knowledge to Canadians
- how a foreign worker will create job opportunities for Canadians
- if a foreign worker is to join a union, whether or not the union has been consulted and the results of those consultations
- if there is a labour dispute, whether or not hiring a foreign worker will affect that labour dispute (HRSDC will not confirm a position if it will affect a labour dispute)
Factors the ESDC officer must consider
It is always important to keep in mind the factors that an ESDC officer must consider in reviewing an application for confirmation by a Canadian employer. Such factors include:
- whether the employment of the foreign national is likely to result in direct job creation or job retention for Canadian citizens or permanent residents
- whether the employment of the foreign national is likely to result in the creation or transfer of skills and knowledge for the benefit of Canadian citizens or permanent residents
- whether the employment of the foreign national is likely to fill a labour shortage
- whether the wages offered to the foreign national are consistent with the prevailing wage rate for the occupation, and whether the working conditions meet generally accepted Canadian standards
- whether the employer has made, or has agreed to make, reasonable efforts to hire or train Canadian citizens or permanent residents
- whether the employment of the foreign national is likely to adversely affect the settlement of any labour dispute in progress or the employment of any person involved in the dispute
ESDC decision-making process
The ESDC decision-making process depends on the circumstances.
For instance, in times of low unemployment and labour shortages, the extent to which an employer must advertise a position will be lower than for areas with high unemployment and labour surpluses.
In addition, depending on the position, the ESDC may insist on national advertising to attract Canadian candidates for senior level positions.
Moreover, the ESDC will also review the salary and working conditions to determine that they are consistent with the current labour market in the area.
The ESDC will also consider whether hiring a foreign worker will result in a skills transfer to Canadians, whether a union is present at the workplace (if the worker will join the union) and whether hiring a foreign worker will affect a labour dispute at a workplace.
If the ESDC officer concludes that no Canadian is available for the advertised by the Canadian employer, the job offer will be validated by a confirmation letter.
The confirmation is then signed by the employer and ESDC. This confirmation is then sent by ESDC to the appropriate Visa office where the foreign worker has applied (or will soon apply) for a work permit. A copy should also be included in the work permit application.
The employer is notified that the confirmation has been sent to the Visa office.
This completes ESDC’s involvement in the work permit process. The next step is for Citizenship and Immigration Canada to review and approve (or deny) the foreign worker’s work permit application in the applicable foreign visa office
Step 2: Worker Applies for Work Permit
Typically, a foreign worker applies for a work permit after he or she receives a job offer from a Canadian employer, and after the Canadian employer receives ESDC confirmation (note that ESDC confirmation is also sent to the Visa office responsible for the geographic region in which the foreign worker lives).
Generally, the following documents are required for a work permit application, although other supporting documentation will be required depending on the circumstances:
- application form
- job offer
- background documents showing the qualifications and experience of the applicant for employment
- proof of identity
Where does a foreign worker apply?
The foreign worker applies to the Canadian Consulate or Canadian High Commission responsible for the geographic region in which the worker currently lives.
In addition, the foreign worker may also require a temporary resident visa (in addition to the work permit) if he or she is from one of these countries.
Qualifying for a work permit: ability to perform the work
The foreign Canadian Visa office will determine whether or not the foreign worker is qualified to do the work set out in the job offer as confirmed by ESDC.
The Visa office will review the foreign worker’s educational qualifications and work experience to ensure they match the Canadian employer’s specified requirements.
If the foreign worker does not possess the appropriate qualifications, a work permit will not be issued.
It should be noted that a work permit will not be issued for regulated occupations (such as doctors, lawyers, engineers, certain tradespeople, etc.,) unless the foreign worker meets the certification and licensing requirements of the applicable regulatory body.
It is essential to contact these regulatory bodies before a work permit application is made to ensure that a foreign worker meets Canadian qualification standards.
Genuine temporary resident
The Visa office must be satisfied that the foreign worker is a genuine temporary resident and will (or intends to) return to his or her country of origin once the work permit expires.
The Visa office will look for property, family ties, bank accounts, investments or other evidence that show the foreign worker has links to his or her home country.
It should be noted that the Visa office recognizes a dual-intent to work in Canada temporarily and to apply for permanent residency.
In fact, points are awarded on a permanent resident application for work experience in Canada. As long as the foreign worker can show sufficient ties to his or her country, he or she is free to work in Canada temporarily and also apply for permanent residency.
Step 3: Work Permit is Issued
Once ESDC confirmation is granted, and the foreign worker qualifies for a permit, it is usually issued within approximately one month (click here for current processing times).
Work permits are generally issued for periods between one and three years, depending on the occupation, length of employment contract and other factors.
The Visa office will typically issue permits for a longer (rather than shorter) time period, to avoid dealing with work permit extension applications in future.
The Visa office may also issue an open work permit for an accompanying spouse (if it was applied for) or even accompanying children if they are over 18 years of age (but less than 22 years of age).
A work permit also allows school-aged children to attend public school, and allows the applicant’s family to access public health care, although some provinces have a 3 month waiting period before applying for health care coverage. Private insurance should be purchased for this interim period.
Private insurance can be purchased from the Blue Cross or other health insurers.
Obtaining a Work Permit Not Requiring ESDC Confirmation
There are numerous situations in which an individual can apply for a work permit without requiring a Canadian employer to attain an ESDC confirmation for a particular job. Some of the more common exceptions are described below.
Types of work permits that do not require ESDC confirmation. Note that work permits issued without ESDC confirmation are now considered to be within the International Mobility Program.
NAFTA work permits
If a US or Mexican citizen qualifies for a NAFTA work permit, no ESDC confirmation is required (see Chapter 2).
Canada Chile Free Trade Agreement
If a Chilean citizen qualifies for a work permit under the Canada Chile Free Trade Agreement, no ESDC confirmation is required.
If a citizen of a member country of GATS qualifies for a work permit under that agreement, no ESDC confirmation is required.
Other international agreements
Canada has entered numerous international agreements that allow certain individuals to work in Canada without ESDC confirmation. Contact us for details.
If an individual will provide a significant social, cultural or economic benefit or opportunities for Canadians, he or she can obtain a work permit without the requirement for ESDC confirmation.
Significant benefits include job creation, creating an export market for Canada, technological advancement or innovation, or opportunities for improving skills of Canadians.
Note that the foreign Visa office will often contact industry representatives or organizations in Canada to help determine if the foreign national will provide a significant benefit or impede Canadians already working in that particular industry.
There are three categories of applicants that may be considered to provide a significant benefit to Canada:
Entrepreneurs and self-employed
Entrepreneurs and self-employed persons seeking to operate a business in Canada may qualify under this category for a work permit without ESDC confirmation.
Individuals who have applied for permanent residence under the entrepreneur or self-employed category may be issued a work permit before permanent resident application processing is complete.
These individuals must show that “early” entry to Canada with a work permit would generate significant benefits for Canadians.
However, such individuals must also show that they will leave Canada after their permit expires if their permanent resident application is ultimately refused. If the individual is nominated under a Provincial Nominee Program, it is usually much easier to secure a temporary work permit long before permanent resident processing is complete.
If such an individual is not applying for permanent residence, he or she will have the more difficult task of showing that his or her entry will provide a significant benefit to Canadians during the temporary stay.
Typically such individuals will have to show a genuine temporary project that ends when the individual leaves, is seasonal in nature, or will be operated by a Canadian when the foreign national returns to his or her country.
Tourist businesses, real estate development or other project-based businesses are good candidates for this exception.
Emergency repair personnel
Individuals who are required to perform emergency repairs to industrial equipment in order to prevent disruption of employment in Canada can obtain a work permit without ESDC confirmation.
These individuals should have a letter or fax detailing the emergency repairs required and the consequences of failing to have the repairs performed in a timely fashion.
Intra-company transferees (non-NAFTA)
If the NAFTA option is not available, a company that does (or will do) business in Canada and in a foreign country can transfer certain employees to a parent, branch, subsidiary or affiliate to Canada without ESDC confirmation.
A simple agent office in Canada, or a business arrangements with a Canadian firm based solely on contract, license or franchise will not usually qualify.
Only senior management or specialized knowledge workers qualify under this category, and must have worked for at least one year in the previous three years for the company in a similar position.
There are a number of further CIC requirements for transferees.
Spouses or common law partners of workers or students
Spouses or common law partners of principal workers or students admitted to Canada may be granted a work permit without ESDC confirmation.
Canada has a post-graduation work permit program to allow certain full-time students who have graduated from certain post-secondary institutions to gain work experience in Canada.
Charitable or religious work
Charitable or religious workers doing work for a charitable or religious organization in Canada may be able to obtain a work permit without ESDC confirmation.
There are a number of requirements for this exception and (as in all categories), legal advice should be sought.
Process to obtain a work permit that does not require ESDC confirmation
An individual may apply at a foreign Canadian embassy or at a port of entry (subject to certain conditions described below).
Every application will require documentation unique to the individual’s plans and circumstances, but all applications require the following basic information:
- application form
- job offers or contracts
- background documents showing the qualifications and experience of the applicant for employment in Canada
- proof of identity
- a copy of the applicant’s current immigration document, if applying within Canada
- any other documentation required to satisfy the officer that the requirements of the Act or Regulations are met
If a spouse is accompanying the worker, it is important to apply for an open work permit for the spouse as well, so he or she can work in Canada during the period the family is resident in Canada. This open work permit application requires a separate application fee.
Applying at a foreign Canadian embassy
An individual who requires a work permit may apply at the appropriate foreign Canadian embassy. Work permits are usually issued within approximately six to ten weeks.
Applying at a port of entry
An individual may apply for a work permit at a port of entry (as long as he or she has all supporting documentation) subject to these exceptions:
- work permits requiring ESDC confirmation (discussed above) must be applied for at a foreign Canadian embassy;
- the individual does not hold the appropriate medical certificate (where required); or
- the individual is part of an international youth exchange program).
United States nationals are exempt from some of these requirements.
In addition, individuals who are from countries where a temporary visa is required (in addition to a work permit) must apply to a foreign Canadian embassy for a work permit and temporary resident visa.
Extensions of Work Permits
A foreign worker is entitled to apply for an extension of a work permit if the application is made before the work permit expires, and the foreign worker has complied with all conditions imposed when he or she entered Canada.
Although the Visa officer has the discretion to accept or reject the application, he or she must act fairly and is required to renew the permit if the Visa officer concludes that the applicant continues to meet all the requirements of a temporary worker.
The primary consideration is whether the applicant is still “temporary” and intends to return home after the expiry of the work permit (or expiry of the extension of the work permit).
The Visa officer will also consider whether the applicant has become inadmissible (based on any criminal or medical factors).
If the foreign worker is under an ESDC-confirmed work permit, the Visa officer must receive a new ESDC confirmation for the job the foreign worker wishes to continue working in via an extension.
In general, the CIC will consider the following factors when considering an extension request:
- length of time applicant has already been in Canada
- length of extension requested
- reason for extension
- any evidence of breach of conditions
- evidence of sufficient financial means
If an application for an extension is denied, the only recourse for an applicant is through an application at the Federal Court of Canada for judicial review.
Failure to apply for an extension
If an applicant fails to apply for an extension, he or she will be considered inadmissible to Canada.
However, resident status can be restored if an application for an extension is received within 90 days after an applicant’s status has expired, as long as all the other elements of an extension are met.
Nonetheless, a person who remains in Canada after their work permit expires is subject to enforcements action for non-compliance and may face deportation.
Consequently, it is vitally important that applications for extension are submitted before the work permit expires.
If CIC does not process the application for extension before the work permit expires, the foreign worker may remain in Canada during the processing period (as long as the application was received before the work permit expired).
Working in Québec
Obtaining a temporary work permit in Quebec requires an additional step for positions that require ESDC confirmation (above). If a job offer requires HRSDC confirmation, both Québec (i.e., Ministère de l’Immigration et des Communautés Culturelles), and the Canadian federal government must confirm the position.
Working Holidays and Young Professionals
If your age is between 18 and 30 (in some cases 35) you may qualify for a working holiday work permit.
Canada has agreements with numerous other countries that allow individuals to obtain a working holiday permit so they may work in Canada at any job they wish. These permits are generally issued for 12 months and can not be renewed.
Some programs allow individuals to apply more than once, meaning you can work in Canada more than one time under this program (examples being Australia and the United Kingdom).
In order to qualify you must be single (no spouse or dependents permitted), and not criminally inadmissible or medically inadmissible in certain circumstances.
The great advantage of these programs is they allow individuals to gain work experience (important for scoring on a federal skilled worker application) or even as a first step to applying under the Canadian Experience Class if the individual works for 24 months in Canada at an appropriate occupation (the remaining 12 months under a different work permit).
Young professionals (meaning individuals in the same age categories as above) may get a work permit if they have a job offer from a Canadian employer in their field of training. Some countries treat the working holiday and young professional category the same, others differently.
Here is a current list of eligible countries for working holidays and young professionals but it does change on occasion, be sure to check your local country’s CIC website for more information:
Type of Work Permit
Maximum Validity Period
|Australia||-Working Holiday||18-30||open||24 months – may re-apply multiple times|
|-Young Professionals -Co-operative education work placement -Co-operative education work placement (interinstitutional work-study agreement)||18-30||employer specific||24 months – may re-apply multiple times|
|Austria||-Canada-Austria Intra-& Partner-Company Training Program||No limit||employer specific: permanently employed by an Austrian company, training with Canadian partner, subsidiary or parent company||12 month|
|-Canada-Austria Young Workers Exchange||18-30 (35 in exceptional circumstances) graduate of postsecondary program in forestry, agriculture or tourism||employer specific in field of studies (forestry, agriculture or tourism)||12 months|
|Belgium||-Working Holiday||18-30||open||12 months|
|Chile||-Working Holiday||18-35||open||12 months|
|-Young Professionals (Supplementary graduate training) -Co-operative education work placement (Internship) -Co-operative education work placement (Interinstitutional work-study agreement)||18-35||employer specific||12 months|
|Czech Republic||-Working Holiday||18-35||open||12 months|
|-Young Professionals (Supplementary graduate training) -Young Professionals (Career development) -Co-operative Education work placement (Internships)||18-35||employer specific||12 months|
|Denmark||-Working Holiday||18-35||open||12 months|
|France||-Working Holiday||18-35||open||12 months|
|-Young Professionals||18-35||employer specific||18 months|
|-Co-operative Education work placement (Internship/On-the-job training)||18-35||employer specific||12 months|
|Germany||- Working Holiday||18-35||open||12 months|
|-Student Summer Job||18-35||employer specific||3 months, summer period|
|Hong Kong||-Working Holiday||18-30||open||12 months|
|Ireland||-Working Holiday (Programme A: students)||18-35||open||12 months (may re-apply multiple times)|
|-Working Holiday (Programme B: nonstudents)||18-35||open||12 months|
|Italy||-Working Holiday||18-35||open||6 months|
|Japan||-Working Holiday||18-30||open||12 months|
|Korea||-Working Holiday||18-30||open||12 months|
|Latvia||-Working Holiday||18-35||open||12 months|
|-Young Professionals (Professional Development) -Co-operative Educational Work Placement (Internships)||18-35||employer specific||12 months|
|Netherlands||-Working Holiday||18-30||open||12 months|
|-Young Professionals (Youth workers exchange program)||18-30||employer specific||12 months|
|New Zealand||-Working Holiday||18-30||open||12 months|
|Norway||-Working Holiday -Student Working Holiday (student) -Working Holiday (nonstudent)||18-35||open||12 months|
|-Young Professionals -Supplementary graduate training -Internships -Co-operative Educational Work Placement (Interinstitutional work-study agreement)||18-35||employer specific||12 months|
|Poland||-Working Holiday||18-35||open||12 months|
|-Young Professionals (Professional development) -Co-operative Educational Work Placement (Internship; On-the-Job training)||18-35||employer specific||12 months|
|Spain||-Working Holiday||18-35||open||12 months|
|-Young Professionals (graduates;non-graduates) -Co-operative Educational Work Placement (Interinstitutional agreements; Academic vacations)||18-35||employer specific||12 months|
|Sweden||-Working Holiday -Student Working Holiday (student) -Working Holiday (nonstudent)||18-30||open||12 months|
|-Young Professionals (graduates; non-graduates) -Co-operative Education work placement||18-30||employer specific||12 months|
|Switzerland||-Young Professionals (graduates; non-graduates) -Co-operative Educational Work Placement (Internship/On-the-Job Training)||18-35||employer specific||18 months|
|United Kingdom**||-Working Holiday (Programme A: Student||18-30||employer specifice||12 months (may re-apply multiple|
Help With Completing the Forms
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